2. Julian Nagelsmann’s pendulum evolved
Nagelsmann’s Hoffenheim got attention not necessarily for using a new idea, but for becoming a perfect example of it and giving it a name. The pendulum refers to the side rocking back and forth in a “U” shape defensively. If a wingback pushes forward to press, the three centerbacks slide over and the far wingback drops back to create a four at the back. If play is switched, the whole defense just rocks over to do the same on the other side.
This is also a sort of Rangnick coaching tree idea but Tuchel uses it somewhat differently, in part because of how his midfield is shaped. In a 3-5-2, as the pendulum moves, the midfield is often used to sweep up the ball as the opponent tries to get away from the press. In 3-4-3, the midfield stays largely static but the inside forwards also join the press. This makes the press more intense but the midfield two cannot sweep as freely.
One way this has to happen is through the creation of overloads. Chelsea likes to play through the flanks so players tend to bunch over towards them. When the ball is lost, they immediately have high numbers to counterpress. Even if the ball goes towards midfield, the opponent has often over committed players wide. So, while the midfield pivot can’t sweep as naturally as the trio can, they often don’t have to.
Conte also occasionally used this in his own 3-4-3 at Chelsea, though his press rarely lasted more than a pass or two. Tuchel’s press continues for longer before going into a defensive shape and even then it is to simply wait for the next opportunity to press.
These are all ideas very based in German philosophies. Tuchel’s looks different than Nagelsmann’s, but it is very much the same idea with some slight tweaks.